Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque (plak) builds up inside the coronary arteries.
CABG is performed to relieve angina unsatisfactorily controlled by maximum tolerated anti-ischemic medication, prevent or relieve left ventricular dysfunction, and/or reduce the risk of death. CABG does not prevent myocardial infarction (heart attack). This surgery is usually performed with the heart stopped, necessitating the usage of cardiopulmonary bypass. However, two alternative techniques are also available, allowing CABG to be performed on a beating heart either without using the cardiopulmonary bypass, a procedure referred to as “off-pump” surgery, or performing beating surgery using partial assistance of the cardiopulmonary bypass, a procedure referred to as “on-pump beating” surgery. The latter procedure offers the advantages of the on-pump stopped and off-pump while minimizing their respective side-effects.
Is open heart surgery and bypass surgery the same?
Open-heart surgery is any type of surgery where the chest is cut open and surgery is performed on the muscles, valves, or arteries of the heart. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most common type of heart surgery done on adults.
Which is better stent or bypass?
he findings echo past studies, which have shown patients with multiple narrowed arteries have better outcomes with coronary artery bypass grafting, also known as CABG or heart bypass surgery, than with angioplasty, also known as percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI, a less-invasive option in which a stent is inserted to hold the arteries open.
What are the side effects of heart bypass surgery?
Side effects often go away within 4 to 6 weeks after surgery, but may include:
- Discomfort or itching from healing incisions.
- Swelling of the area where an artery or vein was removed for grafting.
- Muscle pain or tightness in the shoulders and upper back.
- Fatigue (tiredness), mood swings, or depression.
CABG is often indicated when coronary arteries have a 50 to 99 percent obstruction. The obstruction being bypassed is typically due to arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, or both. Arteriosclerosis is characterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of the arterial wall, most often resulting in a generalized narrowing in the affected coronary artery. Atherosclerosis is characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, lipids, and cellular debris deposited into the inner layer of the wall of a large or medium-sized coronary artery, most often resulting in a partial obstruction in the affected artery. Either condition can limit blood flow if it causes a cross-sectional narrowing of at least 50 percent.