The haziness of clear transparent lens in the eye is known as cataract. The cause for this is still unknown. However some causes are:
Old age : Most important factor. However it may develop in any age.
Diseases during pregnancy such as German measles.
Traumatic cataract: Cataract due to injury.
Eye diseases such as iritis.
Medicines as steroids.
Systemic diseases like diabetes.
Long term exposure to sunlight.
Only treatment available for it is operation. No medicines can remove cataract or slow the progress of its growth. No one can predict how fast a cataract will grow.
Phacoemulsification refers to modern cataract surgery in which the eye’s internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece and aspirated from the eye. Aspirated fluids are replaced with irrigation of balanced salt solution, thus maintaining the anterior chamber, as well as cooling the handpiece.
Intra ocular lens (IOL) : These are powered lenses made to be inserted in the eye. These are permanent lenses and are usually not removed. Lens power is calculated by a machine called biometer. This reduces the lens power required in the specks after cataract surgery.
– phaco with Foldable IOL: Over the past several years foldable implants have gained popularity as they can be placed into the eye through a much smaller incision. These implants have flexible optic lenses made of acrylic or solid silicone. They can be placed into the eye through a self sealing incision as small as 1/8th of an inch. Sutures are not usually required due to the small size of the incision and its self sealing design. These small foldable implants also enable the surgeon to perform topical cataract surgery eliminating needle injections, patches and shields.
The foldable implant enables the surgeon to use a very small incision. These small incisions do not induce significant changes in the patient’s astigmatism thus enabling predictable results. With predictable outcomes, the surgeon can consider special corneal incisions to reduce significant pre-existing astigmatism. These astigmatic corrections are done at the time of surgery and can often enable patients with significant astigmatism to enjoy an astigmatic reduction after cataract surgery (not all patients benefit by astigmatic incisions). Reduction in astigmatism reduces the patient’s need for glasses to correct their vision. This new technology simply reduces dependency on glasses for many daily activities (it does not necessarily eliminate the need for glasses in all situations).
– phaco with pmma IOL: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was the first material to be used successfully in intraocular lenses. Deducing that the transparent material was inert and useful for implantation in the eye, Ridley designed and implanted the first intraocular lens in a human eye.
Advances in technology have brought about the use of silicone and acrylic, both of which are soft foldable inert materials. This allows the lens to be folded and inserted into the eye through a smaller incision. PMMA and acrylic lenses can also be used with small incisions and are a better choice in people who have a history of uveitis, have diabetic retinopathy requiring vitrectomy with replacement by silicone oil or are at high risk of retinal detachment
– phaco with restor multifocal rolable IOL: Multifocal intraocular lenses are one of the latest advancements in lens technology. These lenses have a variety of regions with different power that allows some individuals to see at a variety of distances, including distance, intermediate, and near. While promising, multifocal lenses are not for everyone. They can cause significantly more glare than monofocal or toric lenses. Multifocal lenses cannot correct astigmatism, and some patients still require spectacles or contacts for clearest vision.