Vitrectomy is a microsurgical procedure in which specialized instruments and techniques are used to repair retinal disorders, many of which were previously considered inoperable. The initial step in this procedure is usually the removal of the vitreous gel through very small (1.4mm) incisions in the eye wall, hence the name “vitrectomy”. The vitreous is removed with a miniature handheld cutting device and replaced with a special saline solution similar to the liquid being removed from the eye. A high intensity fiber optic light source is used to illuminate the inside of the eye while the surgeon works. The surgeon uses a specialized operating microscope and contact lenses, which allow a clear view of the vitreous cavity and retina at various magnifications. The procedure is performed in an operating room under local or (occasionally) general anesthesia. It can often be done as an ambulatory procedure.